La gestación de Enrabia tuvo lugar en los años 60, el nacimiento se produjo entre 1973 y 1974, con el establecimiento formal del Diálogo Euro-Árabe (EAD, según sus siglas en inglés). De esto trata el artículo que comento hoy, en el que se hace una síntesis interesantísima de tres fuentes documentales de la mayor importancia:
My primary sources are Henry Kissinger’s Years of Upheaval (the second volume of his three-volume memoirs), published in 1982, and Saleh Al-Mani’s The Euro-Arab Dialogue, published in 1983. Kissinger, of course, was the US Secretary of State at the time. Al-Mani was then an Associate Professor at King Abdul Aziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Despite their different vantage points, Kissinger’s and Al-Mani’s accounts do not conflict with each other. Al-Mani’s book is frequently cited in Bat Ye’or’s recently published Eurabia.
El desencadenante del proceso fue el ataque concertado de los vecinos árabes a Israel el 6 de octubre de 1973, día del Yon Kippur, gran fiesta judía. Unos detalles:
On October 17, the Arab member states of OPEC announced that they would reduce their oil production by 5 percent per month until Israel withdrew from the occupied Arab territories.
On the same day, French Foreign Minister Michel Jobert spoke before the National Assembly. Kissinger’s summary of his speech is as follows:
After depicting Israel as the country that had consistently prevented Middle East peace, [he] castigated both the United States and the USSR for keeping the war going, in the process postulating the moral equivalence of the two sides – the intellectual presupposition of European neutralism . . .
On October 19, Saudi Arabia suspended indefinitely all oil shipments to the US.
El comienzo del “diálogo” no se hizo esperar, aunque digan que “las cosas de palacio van despacio»:
Indeed, on October 31, French President Pompidou called for a common European policy on the Middle East. Six days later, at a meeting of the nine European Community (EC) member countries in Brussels, the foreign ministers issued a joint declaration on the Middle East in which, according to Al-Mani, they reaffirmed «the ties of all kinds which have long linked the Europeans to the countries of the southern and eastern Mediterranean.»
At a meeting on November 26-27 between Pompidou and Willy Brandt, the two leaders reaffirmed European intentions to engage in a dialogue with the Arabs and Pompidou called for a European summit to discuss the Middle East crisis. The meeting took place in Copenhagen on December 14-15, 1973, and four Arab foreign ministers (from Algeria, Tunisia, the Sudan, and the United Arab Emirates) attended to lay the foundations for a process of multilateral negotiations between the League of Arab States and members of the EC.
Kissinger has an interesting take on the Copenhagen Summit:
There was the odd affair of the European Community summit meeting in Copenhagen on December 14-15, where a group of Arab foreign ministers showed up allegedly «unexpectedly» to lobby for pressure on Israel. If the accounts given to us were to be believed, it must have been the first time in history that a delegation of foreign ministers appeared uninvited at the summit meeting of a continent to which they did not belong. We did not know who had engineered the «surprise» visit; we suspected [French Foreign Minister] Jobert, but clearly it could not have taken place without the acquiescence of most of his colleagues.
Ni siquiera guardan las formas. El artículo sigue con el boicot francés a los intentos de EE. UU. de crear un cartel de compradores en respuesta al cartel de productores:
[Jobert] accused us of having assembled an ill-prepared, ill-conceived conference designed to achieve American predominance rather than to settle the energy problem . . . He offered no proposal of any kind . . . He wanted no common energy policy in any guise. He was out to torpedo the conference. Plainly, France was ready to gamble on fulfilling its energy needs through bilateral deals; it would seek a preferred position through political support to radical regimes, particularly Iraq. It would attempt to drag Europe in its wake by means of the European-Arab dialogue.
El resto es historia.